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*Strategic Planning
*WhatWhenHowRelated StrategiesExamplesMore InfoOther Strategies
* What It Is.
Strategic Planning is a process of determining the vision, mission, and goals of an organization and the strategies for achieving those goals. Strategic planning bridges the gap between the present and future. The process involves analyzing opportunities and threats that exist within and outside of the organization.

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* When To Use It.
* To ensure that the organization's goals and objectives are aligned with the needs of customers and the demands of the external environment.
* To get stakeholder commitment to organizational goals.
* To link budget and resource requirements to performance outcomes.
* To establish the framework for the organizational outcomes that will be measured and reported annually to the Congress, the Executive Branch, and the public as required under the Government Performance and Results Act.

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* *
* Begin with the end in mind by developing a vision for the future. Discuss how the vision of your work unit fits with the overall organization.
* Clarify the mission of your work unit or organization by asking: "What would not get done in the organization if our function were taken away?" Assess the current state of the work unit or organization by gathering data on internal and external threats and opportunities.
* Check that your strategic goals and performance plans align with the mission.
* Analyze the gap between the current state (where the work unit or organization is now) and the vision (where the work unit or organization wants to be).
* Identify strategies and actions for determine how to get from the current to the future state.
* Identify resources required to achieve your future state such as human resources, money, and intellectual capital.

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* Relationship To Other Learning Strategies.
As described below, learning strategies are often used in combination with one another or may be closely linked to one another.

Benchmarking: During the strategic planning process, an organization may gather information by comparing its performance with the best practices of exemplary organizations (i.e., Benchmarking). The organization may then use Benchmarking information to help revise its strategic direction or create an entirely new strategy.

Corporate Scorecard: The Scorecard is a comprehensive measurement system that facilitates the tracking and reporting of Strategic Plan implementation as required by the Government Performance and Results Act.

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* Examples.
The U.S. Army Pacific Command (Ft. Shafter, Hawaii)

The U.S. Army began its strategic planning process with an assessment of its operations and organizations, which included active, reserve, and National Guard components. A "breakthrough" vision was created and major focus areas were identified. Through the strategic planning process, U.S. Army Pacific now has a tool by which people lead, organize, and coordinate all activities in its wide area of operations. Another equally powerful result is that people, by virtue of being involved and engaged in the process, have created a highly collaborative environment that further enhances productivity.

Judge Advocate General (JAG) of the Air Force

The strategic plan of the JAG has provided three changes of leadership with a tool to lead and manage the entire Air Force JAG department. As a result of this highly interactive planning process, people have also learned the value of working more closely with each other. This has been especially important because many of JAG's teams are geographically separated. People now make extra effort to work together as a team and interact through teleconferencing and other technology.

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* Where To Go For More Information.
Web Resources

U.S. Office of Personnel Management's Online Performance Management Technical Assistance Center, Planning Resources

Government Performance and Results Act Resource Center

Strategic Planning For Technical Teams


Senge, P. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday, 1990.

Senge, P. et al. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for a Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

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* Other Organizational Learning Stategies.
Following are links to the other Organizational Learning Strategies:
* Meetings
* Action Learning
* Cross-Functional Teams
* Work-Outs
* Parallel Learning Structures
* Corporate Scorecard
* Benchmarking
* Groupware
* Distance Conferencing

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