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*WhatWhenHowRelated StrategiesExamplesMore InfoOther Strategies
* What It Is.
Coaching is a learning technique that involves observing an individual at work and providing feedback to enhance performance or correct deficiencies.

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* When To Use It.
* To support an individual who is assuming new job duties.
* To develop or provide new skills through on-the-job training.
* To introduce new procedures or technologies.
* To enhance performance and correct deficiencies.
* To prepare individuals for career development.
* To develop members of a work team.

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* *
* Prepare by collecting necessary information on current performance levels and needs.
* Set learning objectives and expectations together with the individual.
* Mutually develop and agree on a course of action for enhancing performance.
* Facilitate learning and enhance performance through using observation, listening, and feedback skills. Give constructive feedback and encourage and reward accomplishments.
* Schedule follow-up coaching sessions.

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* Relationship To Other Learning Strategies.
As described below, learning strategies are often used in combination with one another or may be closely linked to one another.

Mentoring: Mentoring is a process that focuses specifically on providing guidance, direction, and career advice. In contrast, Coaching is a specific skill that can be used in a variety of situations and settings. A mentor uses coaching skills during the mentoring process.

Manager as Teacher: Coaching is a skill that the manager can use in his or her role as teacher.

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* Examples.
General Services Administration (GSA)

GSA developed a handbook to help managers coach individuals to improve needed job competencies. The handbook generated so much interest in coaching that people volunteered to coach others in particular areas of expertise. This list of coaches was distributed using e-mail to allow learning to be shared across the organization.

National Semiconductor

National Semiconductor uses managers as coaches to meet the demands of its fast-paced and changing environment. The company developed a 19-minute videotape on coaching that helps managers improve their coaching skills and achieve better organizational results.

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* Where To Go For More Information.
Web Resources

Coaching vs. Counseling Online Article

Coaching: The Key to Performance Improvement Online Article

Coaching People To Take Successful Action Online Article

Four Ways to Coach Employees Online Article

Performance Coaching Web Page

TransformingWork Web Site


Nowack, K. M. & S. Wimer. Coaching for Human Performance. Training and Development. Oct. 1997, pp. 28-32.

Snyder, A. Executive Coaching: The New Solution. Management Review. Mar 1995, pp. 20-32.

Sorohan, E. The Performance Consultant at Work. Training and Development. Mar 1996, pp. 34-38.

Zemke, R. & K. Anderson. Coaching Knock Your Socks Off Service. AMACON, 1996.

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* Other Individual Learning Stategies.
Following are links to the other Individual Learning Strategies:
* Job Rotations
* Special Assignments
* Mentoring
* Individual Development Plan
* Manager as Teacher
* Learning Groups (Teams)
* Self-Development

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